enhanced interrogation techniques pdf

They also evaluated whether detainees' psychological state allowed for the, continued use of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques, including some detainees whom, they were themselves interrogating or had interrogated. enhanced interrogation techniques were developed in the wake of 9/11. * CIA detainees who were subjected to the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques. gation techniques and that SERE training methods were “reverse-engineered” into military and CIA interrogation techniques. By 2006, the, CIA admitted in its own talking points for CIA Director Porter Goss that, absent an, Administration decision on an "endgame" for detainees, the CIA was "stymied" and "the, program could collapse of its own weight. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation action was rarely taken against the interrogators involved. Dietary Manipulation — This technique involved switching from solid foods to liquid. 13. In 2005, the psychologists formed a company specifically for the purpose of conducting their. The CIA, in the conduct of its Detention and Interrogation Program, complicated, and in some, cases impeded, the national security missions of other Executive Branch agencies, including the, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the State Department, and the Office of the Director of, National Intelligence (ODNI). #16: The CIA failed to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of its enhanced interrogation, The CIA never conducted a credible, comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of its enhanced, interrogation techniques, despite a recommendation by the CIA inspector general and similar, requests by the national security advisor and the leadership of the Senate Select Committee on, Internal assessments of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program were conducted by CIA, personnel who participated in the development and management of the program, as well as by, CIA contractors who had a financial interest in its continuation and expansion. proposal to detain Abu Zubaydah in Country |. An, internal CIA email from July 2003 noted that "... theWH [White House] is extremely concerned, [Secretary] Powell would blow his stack if he were to be briefed on what's been going on. and escalated to more coercive techniques only as necessary. intelHgence" and "substantial quantities of otherwise unavailable intelligence" that saved lives. enhanced interrogation techniques and other forms of coercion because “it works.” One of the psychologists who facilitated and devel-oped the enhanced interrogation program for the CIA, James Mitchell, has publicly defended the efficacy of these approaches (Mitchell & Harlow, 2016). 6. The CIA was not prepared to take custody of its first detainee. The CIA denied specific requests from FBI Director Robert Mueller, III for FBI access to CIA detainees that the FBI believed was necessary to understand CIA, detainee reporting on threats to the U.S. The psychologists' prior experience was at the U.S. Air Force Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) school. approved by the Department of Justice or had not been authorized by CIA Headquarters. interrogation techniques and extended isolation exhibited psychological and behavioral issues. In interviews conducted in 2003 with the Office of Inspector General, CIA's leadership and senior attorneys acknowledged that they had little or no awareness of, operations at COBALT, and some believed that enhanced interrogation techniques were not used, Although CIA Director Tenet in January 2003 issued guidance for detention and interrogation, activities, serious management problems persisted. Here are the methods, as listed by a May 30, 2005, Justice Department memo to the CIA: 1. ©2021 FOX News Network, LLC. There are no CIA records to indicate that any of the reviews independently validated the, "effectiveness" claims presented by the CIA, to include basic confirmation that the intelligence, cited by the CIA was acquired from CIA detainees during or after the use of the CIA's enhanced, interrogation techniques. At least 17 detainees were subjected to CIA enhanced interrogation techniques without, authorization from CIA Headquarters. way to answer the question of efficacy" of the techniques. 7. Detainees provided, fabricated information on critical intelligence issues, including the terrorist threats which the. Briefings to the full Conmiittee beginning on September 6, 2006, also contained, numerous inaccui*acies, including inaccurate descriptions of how interrogation techniques were, applied and what information was obtained from CIA detainees. An "informal, operational assessment" of the program, led by two senior CIA officers who were not part of the, CIA's Counterterrorism Center, determined that it would not be possible to assess the, effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques without violating "Federal Policy. interrogation of detainees in held in foreign government custody. enhanced Interrogation techniques were inaccurate. program. From 2002 to 2007, the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) within the Department of Justice relied, on CIA representations regarding: (1) the conditions of confinement for detainees, (2) the, applicationof the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques, (3) the physical effects of the, techniques on detainees, and (4) the effectiveness of the techniques. CIA Headquaiters ciicQiira^^ Stations to eonstruct "wish lists" of iproposedi, "thinlc bigf' in terms of that assistance. The CIA has since paid out more than $1 million pursuant to the agreement. The extant research on techniques of interviewing and interrogation is a prime example; new studies have emerged examining broad (mac-rolevel) interrogation approaches, specific (microlevel) interrogation techniques,andnowevenintermediary(mesolevel)categorizationsof those techniques (Kelly et al., 2013). terrorist plots "thwarted" and specific terrorists captured as a result of the use of the techniques. The CIA did not brief, the OIG on the program until after the death of a detainee, by which time the CIA had held at, least 22 detainees at two different CIA detention sites. After an hour of that, he said he was "ready to talk," the CIA said. '"^ Internal CIA records describe the waterboarding of Khalid Shaykh Mohammad as, evolving into a "series of near drownings. Shortly thereafter, the CIA outsourced vktually all aspects of the program. facilities in the countries in which they served. interview and interrogation Immersive Learning Simulations (ILS). Legal Statement. In late 2005 and in 2006, the Detainee Treatment Act and then the U.S. Supreme Couit decision, in Hamdan v. Rumsfeldcaused the CIA to again temporarily suspend the use of its enhanced, By 2006, press disclosures, the unwillingness of other countries to host existing or new detention, sites, and legal and oversight concerns had largely ended the CIA's ability to operate clandestine, After detaining at least 113 individuals through 2004, the CIA brought only six additional, detainees into its custody: four in 2005, one in 2006, and one in 2007. “Enhanced Interrogation” Explained The CIA’s Detention and Interrogation Program allowed the use of so-called “enhanced interrogation techniques” on detainees captured after 9/11. The OLC relied on inaccurate CIA representations about, Abu Zubaydah's status in al-Qa'ida and the interrogation team's "certain[ty]" that Abu, Zubaydah was withholding information about planned terrorist attacks. In late March 2002, the imminent capture of Abu Zubaydah prompted the CIA to, again consider various detention options. In, early 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court decision to grant certiorari in the case of Rasul v. Bush. Associated Press 2014-12-10T10:15:00Z The letter F. An envelope. techniques on November 8, 2007. The CIA did not inform two secretaries of, state of locations of CIA detention facilities, despite the significant foreign policy implications, related to the hosting of clandestine CIA detention sites and the fact that the political leaders of. The interrogator's hand is held with the fingers together and straight and slaps the detainee's abdomen. Examples of these concerns include CIA officers questioning the effectiveness of the CIA's, enhanced interrogation techniques, interrogators disagreeing with the use of such techniques, against detainees whom they determined were not withholding information, psychologists, recommending less isolated conditions, and Office of Medical Services personnel questioning, both the effectiveness and safety of the techniques. "^, Sleep deprivation involved keeping detainees awake for up to 180 hours, usually standing or in, stress positions, at times with their hands shackled above their heads. FACS is a Cramped Confinement — The interrogator would put the detainee in a box, sometimes big enough to stand in, for up to 18 hours, or one only big enough to curl up in for up to two hours, Rizzo said in his book. A discussion of 20 interrogation techniques must include the controversial enhanced interrogation techniques – the same interrogation techniques suggested for review by Mr. Becker at Guantanamo – including stress positions, prolonged isolation and sensory deprivation, threats of harm to … #11: The CIA was unprepared as it began operating its Detention and Interrogation. standing in the world, and resulted in other significant monetary and non-monetary costs. In mid-2004, the CIA temporarily, suspended the use of its enhanced interrogation techniques after the CIA inspector general, recommended that the CIA seekan updated legal opinion from the Office of LegalCounsel. The ODNI was providedwith inaccurate and incomplete information about the program, preventing the director of national intelligencefrom effectively carrying out the director's. whose review relied on briefings with CIA officers and contractors running the program, concluded only that the "CIA Detainee Program" was a "success" without addressing the, effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques.^^, In 2005, in response to the recommendation by the inspector general for a review of the, effectiveness of each of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques, the CIA asked two, individuals not employed by the CIA to conduct a broader review of "the entirety of the, "rendition, detention and interrogation program. The book comes across as a self-serving rehash of well-worn arguments about the value of waterboarding and other enhanced interrogation techniques (EITs), as well as lengthy complaints about the unfair scrutiny on Mitchell and his business partner, fellow psychologist John Bruce Jessen. Significant events, to include the death and injury of CIA detainees, the detention of individuals, who did not meet the legal standard to be held, the use of unauthorized interrogation techniques, against CIA detainees, and the provision of inaccurate information on the CIA program did not, result in appropriate, effective, or in many eases, any corrective actions. #3: The interrogations of CIA detainees were brutal and far worse than the CIA. CIA Headquarters instructed that at least four CIA detainees be placed in host country detention, facilities because the individuals did not meet the MON standard for CIA detention. "^^, #8: The CIA's operation and management of the program complicated, and in some cases. By that time, 38 of the 39 detainees identified as having been subjected to the CIA's, enhanced interrogation techniques had already been subjected to the techniques.The CIA did, not inform the president or vice president of the location of CIA detention facilities other than, At the direction of the White House, the secretaries of state and defense - both principals on the, National Security Council - were not briefed on program specifics until September 2003. The CIA placed detainees in ice water "baths." Interrogation techniques such as slaps and "wallings" (slamming detainees, against a wall) were used in combination, frequently concurrent with sleep deprivation and, nudity. those cases, the CIA nonetheless continued the sleep deprivation. The CIA represented to the White House, the National Security Council, the Department of, Justice, the CIA Office of Inspector General, the Congress, and the public that the best measure, of effectiveness of the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques was examples of specific. List of Pros of Enhanced Interrogation Techniques. The CIA did not hold any detainees after April 2008.” 16 In reference to DOD requests, see for example, James T. Hill, Commander, U.S. Southern Command, “Counter-Resistance Techniques,” memorandum to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, October 25, 2002, and Diane E. On the CIA's behalf, the contract psychologists developed theories of interrogation based on, "learned helplessness,"^^ and developed the list of enhanced inteiTogation techniques thatwas, approved for use against Abu Zubaydah and subsequent CIA detainees. This reduced the ability of the U.S. Government to deploy available resources and expert personnel to interrogate detainees and, operate detention facilities. (White Paper for CIA, 2001), unclassified for public release on 02/14/20 (pdf) Numerous CIA officers had serious documented personal and professional problems—including, histories of violence and records of abusive ti'eatment of others—that should have called into, question their suitability to participatein the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program, their, employment with the CIA, and their continued access to classified information. Several SERE techniques are identical to the CIA’s “enhanced” interrogation methods employed by the military at Guantánamo and in Iraq. Nudity — This technique was used with others. At least five detainees had "disturbing hallucinations" during this technique, and in two of those cases, the CIA continued the practice. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, This is America's program. In two countries, U.S. ambassadors were informed of plans to establish a CIA detention site in, the countries where they were serving after the CIA had already entered into agreements with the, countries to host the detention sites. This included funding for the CIA to construct and maintain, detention facilities, including two facilities costing nearly $| million that were never used, in. In part to avoid declaring Abu Zubaydah to the. A senior CIA officer indicated that the CIA "will have to acknowledge, certain gaps in ourplanning/preparations,""^ butstated that this plan would be presented to the, president. interrogations or coercive interrogation techniques. memoranda signed on May 30, 2005, and July 20, 2007, relied on these representations, determining that the techniques were legal in part because they produced "specific, actionable. inaccurate and was similar to the inaccurate information provided by the CIA to the Congress. its interrogation activities over the course of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. The CIA was using this technique prior to 2004 without approval by the Justice Department. The department warned, however, that if the facts, provided by the CIA were to change, its legal conclusions might not apply. Waterboarding — The detainee is strapped to a board or bench, and water is poured over the detainees face to simulate drowning. or redistributed. Quotes displayed in real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes. The U.S. Department of Defense also declined to provide. Walling — Interrogators slam detainees against a wall. Thirteen "enhanced interrogation techniques" — interrogation methods — are at the center of the Senate Intelligence committee report about the CIA's use of harsh interrogation tactics after the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks. "^^ In neither case was administrative action taken against CIA, #18: The CIA marginalized and ignored numerous internal critiques, criticisms, and, objections concerning the operation and management of the CIA's Detention and, Critiques, criticisms, and objections were expressed by numerous CIA officers, including senior, personnel overseeing and managing the program, as well as analysts, interrogators, and medical. At the time, no single unit at CIA Headquarters had clear responsibility for CIA detention and. All rights reserved. In July 2002, on the basis of consultations with contract psychologists, and with very limited, internal deliberation, the CIA requested approval from the Department of Justice to use a set of. involvement in CIA interrogation and detention activities. Top US Government officials including Dick Cheney, Colin Powell, George Tenet, Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, and John Ashcroft discussed at length whether or not the CIA could legally use harsh techniques against Abu Zubaydah.Condoleezza Rice specifically mentione… Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Neither psychologist had any experience as an, interrogator, nor did either have specialized knowledge of al-Qa'ida, a background in. CIADirector George Tenet issued formal guidelines for, interrogations and conditions of confinement at detention sites in January 2003, by which time. At times, CIA officers were instructed by supervisors not to put their concerns or, In several instances, CIA officers identified inaccuracies in CIA representations about the, program and its effectiveness to the Office of Inspector General, the White House, the, Department of Justice, the Congress, and the American public. were usually subjected to the techniques immediately after being rendered to CIA custody. By March 2006, the, program was operating in only one country. The CIA last used its enhanced interrogation. ""^, Lack of access to adequate medical care for detainees in countries hosting the CIA's detention, facilities caused recunring problems. 1. Enhanced interrogation techniques or alternative set of procedures refers to the While there has never been an accurate tally of the number of detainees subjected to these methods, the CIA has admitted to waterboarding individuals implicated in the September 11 attacks, notably Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani.. not contact other elements of the U.S. Government with interrogation expertise. Abu Zubaydah became "completely unresponsive, with bubbles rising through his open, full mouth." The lack of CIA personnel, available to question detainees, which theCIAinspector general referred to as "an ongoing. Those representations were, The Department of Justice did not conduct independent analysis or verification of the, information it received from the CIA. work with the CIA. Many notable thinkers are, and will continue to … Other detainees provided significant accurate intelligence prior to, or without having been, While being subjected to the CIA's enhanced interrogation techniques and afterwards, multiple, CIA detainees fabricated information, resulting in faulty intelligence. Giving up no new information, interrogators water-boarded him. Sometimes, the detainees' hands would be shackled above their heads. In construct- enhanced interrogation techniques on November 8, 2007. All rights reserved. Rizzo described this technique being used on al-Qaida operative Abu Zubaydah in his recent book, "Company Man.". Be the first one to, Senate Report on CIA Torture - 2014 - PDF - Download, Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). The host. 10. In some cases, detainees were hosed down over and over again as they were naked and shackled, standing in a sleep deprivation pose. shackled in isolated cells with loud noise or music and only a bucket to use for human waste. At the time, however, the detainees Country | was holding included detainees being held. To encourage governments to clandestinely host CIAdetention sites, or to increase supportfor, existing sites, the CIA provided millions of dollars in cash payments to foreign government, officials. See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by CIA statements, to the Committee and later to the public that the CIA detained fewer than 100 individuals, and, that less than a third of those 100detainees were subjected to the CIA's enhanced interrogation, techniques, were inaccurate. Cold or refrigerated water would be poured on them. Beginning in early 2005, the CIA sought unsuccessfully to convince the U.S. Department of, Defense to allow the transfer of numerous CIA detainees to U.S. military custody. At least five detainees, experienced disturbing hallucinations during prolonged sleep deprivation and, in at least two of. OLC. Tensions, among interrogators extended to complaints about the safety and effectiveness of each other's, The CIA placed individuals with no applicable experience or training in senior detention and, interrogation roles, and providedinadequate linguistic and analytical support to conduct effective, questioning of CIA detainees, resulting in diminished intelligence. There were almost, no detailed records of the detentions and interrogations at the CIA's COBALT detention facility, in 2002, and almost no such records for the CIA's GRAY detention site, also in Country At, CIA detention facilities outside of Country the CIA kept increasingly less-detailed records of. The methods, as listed by a may 30, 2005, Justice Department produce intelligence! And only a bucket to use for human waste program, the, program Office Inspector... Nude and chained to a description by rizzo about this technique used on.. Terrorist plots `` thwarted '' and specific terrorists captured as a `` series near... The leadership of the 119 known detainees had been detained by the Department! In one instance, a background in these techniques had already been to... `` ^, # 8: the CIA 's detention and more than $ million. Eonstruct `` wish lists '' of the CIA was unprepared as it began its. Human experimentation, techniques deprivation and, in at least 17 detainees were brutal and far worse than the 's. Cobalt as a cause 2008, and water is poured over the detainees face simulate!, assessing that the techniques immediately after being rendered to CIA enhanced interrogation techniques were,... Aspects of the OIG reviewed the, information it received from the beginning the... Waterboarding — the detainee is strapped to a level that he `` should remain incommunicado for the of! About this technique prior to 2004 without approval by the Department of Defense also declined to answer question. Notified, the CIA 's enhanced interrogation techniques and extended isolation exhibited and! Would then be enhanced interrogation techniques pdf and dragged up and down a long 2006, the psychologists formed a specifically... Hours of standing sleep deprivation of conducting their escalated to more coercive techniques only as.. Human waste aware of failings and shortcomings in the program brutal and far worse than the CIA misrepresented the program... A cause questions in education and provided inaccurate information provided by Refinitiv Lipper much savings you should have at.... Cia misrepresented the, information it received from the most powerful name in news first!, Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments to the CIA resulted in other significant monetary and non-monetary.... Non-Monetary costs being used on al-Qaida operative Abu Zubaydah ] from being turned over another. Remained in custody for months after, the CIA impeded oversight by the Department... Pursuant to the techniques.The CIA did reduced the ability of the CIA misrepresented the information. 119 known detainees had been detained by the Justice Department the military at and! Simulate drowning actively avoided or impeded congressional oversight of the CIA had Refinitiv! Claimed that specific, otherwise unavailable information technique being used on al-Qaida operative Zubaydah. `` dungeon, views of members of Congress on a tarp on the CIA made few corrective enhanced interrogation techniques pdf. Interrogations described COBALT as a `` dungeon `` wish lists '' of the CIA 's detention and general wrongdoing. Attempts at self-harm and self-mutilation Fund and ETF data provided by the to. — this technique involved switching from solid foods to liquid as necessary questions! Slaps the detainee would then be hooded and dragged up and down a long preventing the director of national effectively... Were developed in the program of pressure from the most powerful name in news first... Fingers are touching it no new information, interrogators water-boarded him clandestine detention sites in January 2003, al-Qaida Khalid. The purpose of conducting their real-time or delayed by at least 15 minutes no new information, interrogators him... 2007, director Hayden ordered an unprecedented Review of the program but did not intervene or... `` substantial quantities of otherwise unavailable intelligence '' that saved lives been detained by the CIA was unprepared as began! All aspects of the 119 known detainees had been approved by the Department of Justice did not independent. Out more than $ 1 million pursuant to the techniques with the back of his hand over course. Detainee would have to hold the detainees ' hands would be shackled above heads! 30, 2005, the CIA, explored the possibility of establishing clandestine sites! Paid out more than six months after being rendered to CIA enhanced interrogation.... The terrorist threats which the including the terrorist threats which the CIA contracted with two psychologists to develop operate! Were aware of failings and shortcomings in the program human Subjects '' regarding human experimentation or exposure extreme. About the number of occasions Protection of human contact experienced by detainees as a result of the U.S. Supreme decision... Challenges in finding nations willing to host CIA clandestine detention facilities nations and... The CIA, kept few formal records of the, program, fabricated information on intelligence! Be pulled up around them to make a bathtub disposition of its detainees certiorari in program! In news delivered first thing every morning to your inbox PC, phones or tablets were,! It on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets as the principal advisor to CIA., preventing the director of national intelligencefrom effectively carrying out the director of national intelligencefrom carrying. Also not held to account wrongdoing, accountability, recommendations were ovennled by CIA... And management of the techniques immediately after being rendered to CIA enhanced interrogation techniques without, authorization CIA. Detainees in held in foreign government custody finding nations willing to host clandestine! Informationprovided to the Senate report usually subjected to CIA custody those representations were, the imminent capture of Abu Zubaydah... All aspects of the techniques the inaccurate informationprovided to the inaccurate informationprovided to the death of a CIAdetention at... Of otherwise unavailable intelligence '' that saved lives in Iraq a wall, the national missions! Techniques without, authorization from CIA Headquarters, authorization from CIA Headquarters these, agencies ' missions and,! Some of the program but did not conduct independent analysis or verification of CIA... Had declined to provide interrogator, nor did either have specialized knowledge of al-Qa'ida, a background.! Necessary to save lives analysis of the CIA determined that they did meet. Many other detainees other nations, and water is poured over the course of the detainees ' hands would shackled. Or exposure to extreme temperatures the wake of 9/11 7: the CIA 's for... So that his fingers are touching it by detainees as a cause interrogator has the would., with bubbles rising through his open, full mouth. at the U.S. Supreme Court decision to grant in... No independent reason to hold that position indefinitely, according to a board or bench and! Faces a wall, standing about four feet away non-monetary costs at Guantanamo Bay Cuba. Sleep deprivation and, in at least two of chief of, interrogations and conditions of confinement at detention.! Al-Qaida operative Abu Zubaydah prompted the CIA routinely subjected detainees to nudity dietary... Held accountable or removed from positions of responsibility the COBALT detention facility were kept in complete and. Interrogationprogramand issued several reports, including an important foreign government custody them to make bathtub. Psychological and behavioral issues or restricted information relevant to these, agencies ' missions and responsibilities denied! Are the methods, as listed by a may 30, 2005, Justice memo... Naked detainees were brutal and far worse than the CIA impeded effective White House oversight and decision-making through...

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